Time to train with intensity
KOS Pre Workout
What should you look for in a Pre-Workout supplement? K-OS Pre-workout is a Formulated Supplementary Sports Food designed to intensify your workout. The synergistic ingredients in K-OS not only deliver increased intensity and focus to your workouts, but also improve muscle growth and strength and aid recovery.
If you want to build muscle or shed fat, you need to maximise your time in the gym. KOS Pre-workout is one of the best speciality formulated powders produced by the Body Science Team as each advanced scoop contains 3000mg Creatine, 1500mg Beta Alanine, 250mg Arginine and 175mg Caffeine.
Creatine is a substance found naturally within the human body. Although found in numerous organs, the majority of creatine is stored within skeletal muscle cells. Put simply, creatine is used to restore the levels of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) in cells. ATP is a vital energy source for muscles and creatine is needed to maintain adequate ATP levels. The remarkable thing about muscle creatine stores is that they can be increased simply by supplementing the diet with additional creatine (1). Therefore, oral consumption of creatine increases and saturates the muscle content of creatine, which regenerates ATP so your muscles can keep on working.
A number of studies have suggested that creatine may enhance muscular strength within a very short period of time. One study compared the maximum amount of weight able to be lifted for one repetition in the bench press exercise prior to and after seven days creatine supplementation (2). This strength based test commonly referred to as a “1RM” is a measure of maximal muscular strength. As shown in the graph below (figure 1), after only seven days creatine supplementation muscle strength had increased significantly.
Figure 1: Strength changes after 7 days creatine supplementation.
Numerous studies have reported that, when combined with a resistance training program, creatine can enhance the gains in fat free mass and lean body mass to a degree that is significantly greater than would be associated with training alone (3-13).
This is likely attributed to a combination of factors including:
Cell volumisation – Creatine causes the water inside the muscle cell (intracellular fluid) to increase, which causes the cell to swell (7, 14). This is believed to be an anabolic signal, which may promote protein synthesis (15). Cell volumisation can be indirectly detected by an increase in muscle cross sectional area within a matter a days after beginning creatine supplementation (16). This may be subjectively felt as a “tightness” or “pump” in the muscle by many users.
Enhanced Training Capacity – Creatine enhances the resynthesis of the cells energy source, Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP). This can allow a higher training intensity to be maintained, which may ultimately lead to a greater stimulus for muscle growth (17).
In various human studies, beta-alanine supplementation has been shown to increase exercise performance, including increased time to exhaustion (18), peak power output during a sprint (19), training amounts for the bench press exercise (20), the total number of repetitions performed, as well as an increase in the change in mean power (21), as well as fatigue threshold and physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold (18, 22, 23). The positive effect Beta Alanine has on exercise performance may be due to the effect beta-alanine has on muscle carnosine levels in all fiber types (24, 25, 26, 27), helping to buffer the muscle from pH changes due to lactic acid production, or improved lean body mass (28).
The well- know stimulant caffeine, has been included in K-OS Pre-workout to help fight fatigue, enhance focus and improve your sense of performance. Athletes in a wide variety of sports regularly use caffeine as an ergogenic aid.
There are three main hypotheses of how caffeine helps enhance physical performance and stamina.
(1) Caffeine causes the body to burn more fat and fewer carbohydrates
(2) Caffeine enhances the athlete’s mental focus by stimulating the central nervous system
(3) Caffeine may have the ability to strengthen muscle contractions.
A separate author offers a fourth hypothesis, suggesting that the thermogenic properties of caffeine offer benefit to strength-power athletes by altering body composition (29). Clinical research shows that taking caffeine can increase muscle strength and physical endurance (30, 31, 32, 33).
Backed by research, K-OS is the perfect supplement to take before your next workout. It can help you push through training plateau’s, boost the work capacity of muscles, increase strength and enhance recovery and contains less than 1g of carbohydrate per serve. Also K-OS contains nothing of the WADA prohibited substances list , is certified under the Informed Sport supplement guarantee and made to the highest quality in GMP / HACCP certified manufacturing facilities.
KOS Pre-Workout has been designed to aid energy, power, endurance, focus and strength. With minimal calories and all of these benefits it compliments any training and strengthening regime and has a recommended dose of 1 x 6g serve per day.
(1) Harris, R. C., Soderlund, K., and Hultman, E. Elevation of creatine in resting and exercised muscle of normal subjects by creatine supplementation. Clin Sci.(Lond) 1992;83(3):367-374.
(2) Volek, J. S., Kraemer, W. J., Bush, J. A., Boetes, M., Incledon, T., Clark, K. L., and Lynch, J. M. Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am.Diet.Assoc 1997;97(7):765-770
(3) Arciero, P. J., Hannibal, N. S., III, Nindl, B. C., Gentile, C. L., Hamed, J., and Vukovich, M. D. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism 2001;50(12):1429-1434.
(4) Jowko, E., Ostaszewski, P., Jank, M., Sacharuk, J., Zieniewicz, A., Wilczak, J., and Nissen, S. Creatine and beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) additively increase lean body mass and muscle strength during a weight-training program. Nutrition 2001;17(7-8):558-566
(5) Becque, M. D., Lochmann, J. D., and Melrose, D. R. Effects of oral creatine supplementation on muscular strength and body composition. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2000;32(3):654-658
(6) Urbanski, R. L., Vincent, W. J., and Yaspelkis, B. B., III. Creatine supplementation differentially affects maximal isometric strength and time to fatigue in large and small muscle groups. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9(2):136-145.
(7) Bemben, M. G., Bemben, D. A., Loftiss, D. D., and Knehans, A. W. Creatine supplementation during resistance training in college football athletes. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2001;33(10):1667-1673
(8) Francaux, M. and Poortmans, J. R. Effects of training and creatine supplement on muscle strength and body mass. Eur.J Appl.Physiol Occup.Physiol 1999;80(2):165-168
(9) Mihic, S., MacDonald, J. R., McKenzie, S., and Tarnopolsky, M. A. Acute creatine loading increases fat-free mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women. Med Sci.Sports Exerc. 2000;32(2):291-296
(10) Maganaris, C. N. and Maughan, R. J. Creatine supplementation enhances maximum voluntary isometric force and endurance capacity in resistance trained men. Acta Physiol Scand. 1998;163(3):279-287
(11) Kirksey KB, Warren BJ, Stone MH, and et al. The effects of six weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementation in male and female track athletes. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1997;29(5 Suppl):S145.
(12) Greenhaff PL, Bodin K, Harris RC, and et al. The influence of oral creatine supplementation on muscle phosphocreatine resynthesis following intense contraction in man. J Physiol 1993;467:75p.
(13) Mihic S, MacDonald JR, McKenzie S, and et al. The effect of creatine supplementation on blood pressure, plasma creatine kinase, and body composition. FASEB J 1998;12:A652.
(14) Saab, G., Marsh, G. D., Casselman, M. A., and Thompson, R. T. Changes in human muscle transverse relaxation following short-term creatine supplementation. Exp.Physiol 2002;87(3):383-389.
(15) Häussinger D; Control of protein turnover by the cellular hydratation state; Ital J Gastroenterol. 1993 Jan; 25(1):42-8.
(16) Ziegenfuss TN, Lowery LM, Lemon PWR. Acute fluid volume changes in men during three days of creatine supplementation. J Exerc Physiol online. 1998;1(3)
(17) Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, Staron RS, Putukian M, Gomez AL, Pearson DR, Fink WJ, Kraemer WJ. Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999;31:1147–1156.
(18) Stout, J. R., Cramer, J. T., Zoeller, R. F., Torok, D., Costa, P., Hoffman, J. R., Harris, R. C., and O'Kroy, J. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino.Acids 2007;32(3):381-386.
(19) Van, Thienen R., Van, Proeyen K., Vanden Eynde, B., Puype, J., Lefere, T., and Hespel, P. Beta-alanine improves sprint performance in endurance cycling. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2009;41(4):898-903.
(20) Hoffman, J. R., Ratamess, N. A., Faigenbaum, A. D., Ross, R., Kang, J., Stout, J. R., and Wise, J. A. Short-duration beta-alanine supplementation increases training volume and reduces subjective feelings of fatigue in college football players. Nutr Res 2008;28(1):31-35
(21) Hoffman, J., Ratamess, N. A., Ross, R., Kang, J., Magrelli, J., Neese, K., Faigenbaum, A. D., and Wise, J. A. Beta-alanine and the hormonal response to exercise. Int J Sports Med 2008;29(12):952-958
(22) Stout, J. R., Cramer, J. T., Mielke, M., O'Kroy, J., Torok, D. J., and Zoeller, R. F. Effects of twenty-eight days of beta-alanine and creatine monohydrate supplementation on the physical working capacity at neuromuscular fatigue threshold. J Strength Cond.Res 2006;20(4):928-931
(23) Stout, J. R., Graves, B. S., Smith, A. E., Hartman, M. J., Cramer, J. T., Beck, T. W., and Harris, R. C. The effect of beta-alanine supplementation on neuromuscular fatigue in elderly (55-92 Years): a double-blind randomized study. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2008;5:21
(24) Derave, W., Ozdemir, M. S., Harris, R. C., Pottier, A., Reyngoudt, H., Koppo, K., Wise, J. A., and Achten, E. beta-Alanine supplementation augments muscle carnosine content and attenuates fatigue during repeated isokinetic contraction bouts in trained sprinters. J Appl.Physiol 2007;103(5):1736-1743
(25) Kendrick, I. P., Harris, R. C., Kim, H. J., Kim, C. K., Dang, V. H., Lam, T. Q., Bui, T. T., Smith, M., and Wise, J. A. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition. Amino.Acids 2008;34(4):547-554
(26) Hill, C. A., Harris, R. C., Kim, H. J., Harris, B. D., Sale, C., Boobis, L. H., Kim, C. K., and Wise, J. A. Influence of beta-alanine supplementation on skeletal muscle carnosine concentrations and high intensity cycling capacity. Amino.Acids 2007;32(2):225-233
(27) Kendrick, I. P., Kim, H. J., Harris, R. C., Kim, C. K., Dang, V. H., Lam, T. Q., Bui, T. T., and Wise, J. A. The effect of 4 weeks beta-alanine supplementation and isokinetic training on carnosine concentrations in type I and II human skeletal muscle fibres. Eur J Appl.Physiol 2009;106(1):131-138
(28) Kern, B and Robinson, T. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on performance and body composition in collegiate wrestlers and football players. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2009;6(Suppl 1)
(29) Antonio, J. and Antonio, J. Sports supplements. Caffeine:the forgotten ergogenic aid. Strength & Conditioning Journal 2004;26(6):50-51
(32) Warren GL, Park ND, Maresca RD, McKibans KI, Millard-Stafford ML.; Effect of caffeine ingestion on muscular strength and endurance: a meta-analysis.; Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010 Jul;42(7):1375-87.
(33) Ping WC, Keong CC, Bandyopadhyay A.; Effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance running in a hot & humid climate.; Indian J Med Res. 2010 Jul;132:36-41
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